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An unwise recommendation by the WHO.

July 20, 2014 1 comment

 

PrEP is an HIV prevention intervention in which antiviral medications are taken to interrupt sexual transmission of the virus. It is now being recommended by the WHO for, it seems all   sexually active gay men.  Actually it’s not quite that stark – they continue to recommend condom use as well.   Despite this, many will probably see this as a recommendation to rely on PrEP as an alternative to condoms.

 

The WHO recommendation is a population based proposal, a public health recommendation as opposed to recommendations for specific individuals.   Recommendations for individuals are different because they take into account individual circumstances, such as the extent to which a specific person is at risk.  Population based recommendations are recommendations made across the board, in the case of the WHO, addressed to all men who have sex with men.

 

While assuring us that the recommendations are evidence based and providing the customary explanation of how the strength of evidence is graded, we learn that the WHO has made a sweeping worldwide population based recommendation on evidence provided by just one randomized study!    This was the iPrEx study, which was beset with interpretative difficulties, not least because few took the medication as directed, if at all.

 

We simply do not know enough about PrEP to make a sweeping population based recommendation. .  We have little idea of what adherence to the medication might look like in various populations, we know little about the degree of protection in specific sexual acts.  Different sex acts carry different risks, for example, to the receptive or insertive partner in anal sex.   Also, how effective is PrEP  in situations of exposure to high and low viral loads.  In addition we have little idea of the extent to which condom use will be abandoned.

 

It’s clear that there is a widespread view that PrEP is an alternative to condoms, despite official recommendations stating that PrEP  should be part of a comprehensive prevention approach that includes condom use.

 

 

A more balanced response would have been a call for more research, and importantly, for a fuller description of those individual situations where PrEP use is a rational preventative intervention at the present time.

 

 

The use of PrEP by an individual is very different.     The degree of risk to individuals will vary considerably and on an individual basis PrEP use can be a completely appropriate intervention in situations of very high risk, even if we do not have precise information of its efficacy without condom use.   The use of  PrEP could also be considered when there is an inability to maintain an erection with a condom.  It might be an option to enable a fuller sexual expression among what is probably   a large number of men whose difficulty with condoms, for whatever reason,  stands in the way of satisfactory   sex.      Medical supervision is also more likely in individual situations. It is important to check for HIV infection and to monitor for sexually transmitted infections and drug toxicities.

 

 

Monitoring for sexually transmitted infections is important.  Since PrEP alone offers no protection from the transmission of infections that might be interrupted by condoms we might expect an increase in such infections with a wide roll out of PrEP.  The current increase in sexually transmitted infections among gay men in some cities is most likely attributable to an increase in unprotected sex.    Many sexually transmitted infections facilitate the transmission of HIV which may be another factor that could drive an increase in new HIV infections.

 

 

 

The way PrEP has been promoted during the past few years has surely contributed to the poor support received for prevention education.   One way in which this has happened is the shifting of budgets for prevention to those entities, private or government insurers that pay for drugs used in biomedical prevention.

 

There seems to be a widespread view that prevention education does not work.  But we know that it can work. The adoption of safe sex practices including condom use in the early 1980s curbed the spread of the epidemic, although admittedly conditions are not the same today.  There is little support for continued condom use, and rather than take the view that condoms don’t work, we might try to understand the obstacles that stand in the way of effective prevention education.

 

 

 

If prevention education has been ineffective it’s  be because there has been so little of it, and what little there is has not been properly targeted.  The move of the epidemic into African American communities during the 1990s  was occurring in plain view yet the federal government was churning out expensive vacuous untargeted prevention messages in the form of “America responds to AIDS,” a futile exercise that helped to discredit prevention education.

I get the sense that some younger gay men feel they have missed out in not experiencing the abandon of the 1970s and see PrEP as a way to make up for this.  The real lesson of the 1970s is that sex with multiple different partners on such a vast scale, as occurred in NYC in the 1970s, permits any pathogen that can be transmitted sexually to disseminate widely. That’s what started to happen with amebas and other intestinal parasites and HIV, and is happening with syphilis, gonorrhoea, herpes, hepatitis and many other infections.  There surely will be others beyond HIV.

 

Since we really have very little information about PrEP, and almost none about its use on a population level  such a broad recommendation by the WHO is absolutely inappropriate, so maybe  faced with increasing HIV  infections among gay men,  the WHO is simply giving up  and proposing an unproved intervention out of desperation.  When I say unproven, I mean it is unproven as a viable population based intervention.    Looked at this way, it’s a put down –  a response that may be no more than gestural to people who continue to harm themselves by refusing to use condoms in sex with partners of unknown sero status.

 

This unwise WHO recommendation may also have the effect of increasing new HIV infections if it results in an increase in unprotected sex where adherence is inadequate.

 

I hope there will be a critical look at the WHO panel and funders responsible for producing such unhelpful recommendations.

 

 

 

 

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iPrEx trial results of Pre exposure prophylaxis – PrEP ,

December 13, 2010 Leave a comment

A very  similar article has been posted at the aidsperspective site.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is an HIV prevention intervention in which anti-HIV drugs are taken to prevent infection.    A safe, effective and affordable drug that could achieve this would be a powerful prevention intervention even possibly capable of halting the spread of the epidemic.

Last week we were told the results of the iPrEx trial that tested the efficacy of PrEP with Truvada, a combination of two anti-HIV drugs, in reducing new HIV infections among a group of men who have sex with men considered to be at high risk for HIV infection.

The announcement of the results was greeted with almost universal jubilation.

“That’s huge,”  said a prominent AIDS researcher,  “That says it all for me.”

“Today marks a major step forward in our quest to combat HIV among MSM

“This discovery alters the HIV prevention landscape forever,”

“….. the new data “represents the most promising development in HIV/AIDS since the introduction of triple combination drug therapy in 1996.”

“This is a game-changing trial result,”

Science magazine reported that..

“The researchers applauded and some even cried when they heard the bottom line”; “I have not cried this hard in years” – said one researcher.

These exultant cheers are usually reserved for the most momentous of breakthroughs.

Demonstrating that a drug could be safe and effective in preventing infection would indeed be a momentous breakthrough as already noted.

But the iPrEx results, far from representing such a breakthrough, indicated that PrEP,  at least with Truvada, together with counselling and provision of condoms, reduced new HIV infections among men who have sex with men only modestly.   It’s unlikely that the 44% reduction in new infections that was seen is of sufficient magnitude to make PrEP with Truvada viable as a public health prevention intervention. Moreover, as will be described there are significant safety concerns, a demonstrated danger of the emergence of drug resistant HIV, and the drug is far from affordable.

A 44% reduction in new infections is not huge; even those extolling the trial results would agree (at least I think they would, but who knows considering the over-the-top responses).

But what is most troubling is that the researchers have squeezed an efficacy of Truvada  of over 90%  by a questionable statistical sleight of hand,  an improper use of sub-group analysis, a technique of data dredging that has been soundly discredited.  I’ll return to this.

This has resulted in headlines such as “PrEP works – if you take your pills”, I don’t know if this will persuade some people to abandon condoms and religiously take their pills.  Unfortunately, as will be explained, the type of subgroup analysis that apparently allowed investigators and commentators to confidently claim a greater efficacy of PrEP is not reliable.  Maybe consistent use of Truvada will reduce new infections by over 90%.  Maybe not.

For the moment staying with the ability to reduce new infections by 44%:  As a public health intervention to be used on a wide scale, this degree if efficacy is just not good enough to justify using Truvada to prevent a life threatening infection.   Even if the risk of infection is low this must be balanced against the gravity of the infection. About 3% of participants in the Truvada arm of the trial became infected as opposed to about 5% among those receiving placebo.

Perhaps it’s on this issue that I’m at odds with the huge acclaim given to the trial results.  Maybe the prevailing view is that a 44% reduction in new infections is indeed good enough; some commentators are even discussing implementation.

PreP proponents like to compare it to malaria prophylaxis.  If the efficacy of malaria prophylaxis were of the same order as that of Truvada in relation to HIV, I suspect many people might think twice before visiting an area where there was a risk of malaria.

Let’s take a closer look at the trial results, particularly the claimed greater degree of efficacy in compliant participants   reported in the New England Journal of medicine.

I have commented briefly on this in my blog on the POZ magazine website.

The medication used in the trial,   Truvada,  is a combination of two anti-HIV drugs, FTC and tenofovir.  It was compared with placebo in over 2000 men who have sex with men, considered to be at high risk for HIV infection.

The 44% reduction in new infections was achieved in conjunction with counselling, provision of condoms and monthly tests to monitor for infection.

This is not a good enough performance to justify widespread use of Truvada to protect against infection.  The investigators then looked at blood and tissue levels of the drugs in people who became infected and those who did not.  They found that those who remained uninfected had detectable drug levels while those who became infected did not.

They incautiously trumpeted this result as proving that Truvada works well if the pills are taken consistently – stating that in those who took their pills more consistently the relative risk reduction was well over 90%.

On the surface this sounds good. Almost all the commentators thought so.

However looking at the results in a sub-group of participants can be misleading.  Most particularly in a sub-group that is defined after randomization; who would or would not comply with treatment could not have been known.    The problems with subgroup analyses will be clearer after a short account of intention to treat analysis.

Intention to treat analysis is the most reliable way to analyse clinical trial data.   In such an analysis participants are analysed in the group to which they were randomized, irrespective of whether they dropped out, or didn’t adhere to the treatment or strayed from the protocol in other ways. This seems counter-intuitive, but there are sound reasons why intention to treat is regarded as the best way to analyse trial data, among them  that it more reliably reflects what happens in real life, rather than in a clinical trial.  For example, one reason why pills may not work is because they are not taken. If they are not taken in a trial we have to be concerned that they may not be taken in real life.  Take a look at this excellent explanation of intention to treat:  Making sense of intention to treat.

As noted, the trial investigators made a lot of the sub-group analysis showing greater efficacy in those who took Truvada pills as measured by finding the drugs in blood and tissue samples.

This is surprising  as the pitfalls inherent in such post-hoc sub-group analyses have been recognized for years.  Commentators, some of whom are clinical researchers, in their over-the-top exultation at the results of the analysis in those compliant with Truvada  may have forgotten about the treachery inherent in sub group analysis.  A few commentators give the problem only passing acknowledgement.

This is a classic paper on sub group analysis:

Yusuf S, Wittes J, Probstfield J, Tyroler HA: Analysis and interpretation of treatment effects in subgroups of patients in randomized clinical trials.

Journal of the American Medical Association 1991 , 266:93-98

This is from that paper:

“Analysis of improper subgroups, though seductive, can be extremely misleading, because a particular treatment effect may influence classification to the subgroup. Thus, an apparent subgroup effect may not be a true effect of treatment but rather the result of inherent characteristics of patients that led to a particular response or to the development of side effects”.

In iPrEx  the subgroups were categorized by events that happened after randomization, so the adherent group is an “improper” subgroup.  “Subgroups of clinical trial subjects identified by baseline characteristics … is a proper subgroup while a subgroup determined by post randomization events or measures is an improper subgroup”.

In actuality the attention given to the subgroup that had blood and tissue drug levels is an example of the treachery of such sub-group analyses.

As an illustration, the reduction in new infections seen in this group may well have resulted from the following possibility.

People who take their pills consistently are more likely to use condoms consistently and in general are more attentive to risk.   So if it were possible to do a subgroup analysis of people who adhered to placebo we might conclude that the placebo also works – (and it’s cheaper).

This is not so fanciful.

“In one study [3], those who adhered to the trial drug (clofibrate) had reduced

mortality; but those who adhered to the placebo pill had the same reduction in mortality”.

This is from:

Coronary Drug Project Research Group. Influence of adherence to treatment

and response of cholesterol on mortality in the coronary drug

project. Engl J Med 1980;303:1038-1041

A classic example of the pitfalls of subgroup analysis is what it demonstrated in  ISIS-2, a trial examining the effects of aspirin after myocardial infarction.  A subgroup analysis showed it was of benefit to all except  people who were either Libras or Geminis.

Maybe Truvada taken consistently can reduce new infections by over 90%; maybe not.  There was no basis for the investigators and commentators to present the first possibility with such overwhelming confidence.

We must accept that a 44% reduction in new infections is at this time the most reliable estimate of Truvada’s efficacy as PrEP.   Although, the confidence interval , a measure of reliability, was wide.

We have an intervention that can reduce new infections by 44%, if taken in conjunction with a program of counselling, condom use, and monthly tests for HIV infection.  That is the benefit.   What about the down side?

The two most important are the development of resistance of HIV to the component drugs of Truvada and the toxicity of the drugs.

The utility in treating HIV infection of FTC and tenofovir – Truvada’s component drugs is lost if the virus becomes resistant to the drugs.  Moreover, some mutations conferring resistance to these drugs can also affect sensitivity to some other drugs.  The danger of resistance, and even cross resistance to other drugs developing when Truvada is used as PrEP is not a trivial concern.    Truvada used as PrEP provides a suboptimal dose in treating established HIV infections.  This is precisely the situation in which resistance is likely to develop.   There were in fact two instances of developed resistance in the iPrEx trial in individuals who became infected, but undetected before the trial began.

Resistant viruses in the community are a danger to all, so the risk of generating resistance is not confined to the individual taking Truvada as PrEP.

What about safety?

The claim in many reports that Truvada is without significant toxicity is also misleading.

Maybe poor adherence has some bearing on the lack of significant toxicity.

A median of 1.2 years exposure to Truvada can tell us little about cumulative and long term effects. Experience with long term use of Truvada in HIV infected people makes concern about toxicity realistic. Renal toxicity, sometimes severe occurs not uncommonly. It’s mostly but not always reversible on stopping the drug.   Thinning of bones, osteopenia and osteoporosis is also seen. There are additional adverse effects associated with the drugs.

There were small abnormalities in some parameters measuring kidney function among those treated with Truvada.  Although these changes were reversible on stopping the drug, the fact that they were seen at all is a reason for great concern about the effects of longer term treatment.

With the experience we have gained from longer term treatment with Truvada, it is disingenuous to stress its overall safety from just 1.2 years of very inconsistent use.

It’s important to point out that for HIV infected individuals, the benefits of treatment with Truvada far outweigh the risks.  For uninfected individuals, an entirely different risk benefit analysis must be made.

Despite the disappointing results of iPrEx, PrEP is important.

Why is PrEP important?

There are at least two important reasons.

1:

PrEP could protect receptive partners in sexual intercourse, both men and women, who are unable to ensure that a condom is used by their partner and for a variety of reasons are unable to refuse sex .   The best and most respectful way of addressing this would be to find ways to empower these individuals; in some way providing them with the means to protect themselves could be seen to also have the effect of perpetuating their subjugation and abuse.

But there are women and men who need protection now and providing them with a means to prevent infection that they can control is vital.  This can go hand in hand with working to empower them and helping them to try to ameliorate or leave abusive relationships.

2:

Sex is one of life’s joys.  It is vitally important to the human experience.

Condoms can be a barrier to intimacy which for many is the most essential aspect of sexual intercourse, for both receptive and insertive partners.  So recommending the use of condoms without acknowledging the significant obstacle they may present to a fulfilling sexual experience is a real problem.   Pleasure is part of that fulfilment and for some insertive partners condoms are a significant impediment to experiencing it.   A fully effective and safe means of pre-exposure prophylaxis may also allow the removal of a barrier to conception.

But people are different; for example some individuals have found that condoms can increase intimacy in the reassurance they provide concerning their and their partners safety.

We should never minimize or trivialize the difficulties condoms can present.  We should also keep in mind that their use is the most effective means of preventing sexual transmission of HIV.

Their use will remain necessary in order to remain uninfected until we are free from HIV or a safe an effective PrEP method can be found.

These considerations, a prevention method that the receptive partner can control, allow conception and  remove  an impediment to full sexual expression are some  reasons to work towards finding a safe and effective form of PrEP.

Truvada unfortunately has not proved to be sufficiently effective and safe.

.

A few words about prevention education and condoms:

The  consistent use of condoms is the most effective means to  prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

PrEP proponents agree but many go on to say that people just don’t use condoms consistently.  This is an attitude that has apparently concluded that prevention education does not work, and more importantly, cannot work.

But how can one conclude that it cannot work when there has been so little of it?   This has some analogy with the claims made for the efficacy of Truvada.   It works, if you take the pills

.

If prevention education has been a failure, it’s not because it doesn’t work, but because we have not provided it well enough.  There has been too little and most has not been properly targeted.

Proper targeting to those most at risk is critical. I have written about this.  We need more and better prevention education.

The CDC now tells us that the group at greatest risk by far in the US is men who have sex with men.  Nothing has changed except the ethnic distribution, so why are they only telling this to us now?     For over twenty years we were told that AIDS was an equal opportunity infection making prevention education targeted to those at greatest risk even more difficult.

It’s only now, 25 years too late, that the CDC appears to recognize the urgency of providing prevention education to gay men.

Neglect of properly targeted prevention education, with encouragement for condom use and continuing support to sustain their use helped to allow the spread of HIV into African American communities in plain view while millions were spent on “America Responds to AIDS” a vacuous prevention message.

Similarly we have known for years that in the US younger men who have sex with men are at particular risk.  We know where to target prevention messages, but we don’t it well enough.

We know that highly targeted prevention education, when crafted by the communities at greatest risk can work.  This was demonstrated in the earliest years of the epidemic in San Francisco and New York City.

In  1982 when Michael Callen, Richard Berkowitz and I first recommended condom use to gay men in New York City, we stressed that in doing so it was important to celebrate sex, recognizing that  for some individuals condom use, or perhaps more precisely, HIV,  could present a barrier to its full expression.      We have come far in freeing ourselves from long standing societal constraints that for too many have stood in the way of a fulfilling sexual experience burdening it instead with guilt.   It’s important to take care in providing continuing support for condom use and recognize that for many they do get in the way. But it’s really HIV that’s getting in the way, and consistent condom use can help to bring it to an end.

Finding conditions where sex without condoms is safe is important.   On the showing of iPrEx – despite its ecstatic reception, PrEP unfortunately is not yet ready.

At the moment consistent condom use is the best protection there is.

The often uncritical response to iPrEx should not persuade anyone that Truvada  is a safe and effective alternative.

iPrEx is a large and complicated study.   The investigators deserve the highest praise for completing this phase and having provided a result.  It may not be the result so many hoped for.  But providing clear information is a major advance.

HIV Prevention Education and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Against HIV. August 2009

August 30, 2009 Leave a comment

Since my last post on this subject I have heard a variety of different views as well as discussed the issue with several  interested individuals.

As a result I have come to see the issue somewhat differently; I suppose I could just amend my last post, but it’s better to leave it as it is and  describe the differences in how I now view PrEP efficacy trials after having heard several different descriptions of  ways in which these are seen.

I listened to presentations at two conferences during the  last few weeks.  A teleconference organized by CHAMP, a community group, and one organized by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).  These conferences attempted to engage and inform individuals about PrEP.       As a consequence I realize that I was mistaken in stating so categorically that efficacy trials of PrEP,  unlike safety trials, could not be undertaken in human research subjects.   However I do not think that if all the ethical requirements are met, that is to provide condoms, consistent counseling and sterile injecting equipment, a generalizable result will be obtained indicating that it is an effective prevention strategy.  Of course I don’t know this, and was wrong in my view that trials of PrEP efficacy should not proceed.

The most important concern with the way the promotion of PrEP, at least as a concept, is being pursued is the neglect of encouraging  prevention education.

Prevention education remains the most important tool we actually have, as opposed to theoretical and unproven approaches.  The latter include PrEP, and the test and treat every infected person proposal.   We absolutely know that in principle prevention education, including the use of condoms can work.   It worked in curbing the increase in the epidemic among gay men in the late 1980s .

The principle is thus established, admittedly without application to those who have no control over the use of condoms by the male partner.  This group is therefore in need of prevention strategies they can control themselves, and PrEP may be the only realistic possibility.

For everyone else, the sexual transmission of HIV can be controlled by the use of condoms, even if not with 100% efficacy.  We have a powerful tool in our hands, and if there are new infections, this is certainly not an indication that it does not work well enough.   It indicates that it is an activity that receives insufficient support, or  it may well be that some of those doing it are just not very good at it.  Maybe there is little societal support for HIV prevention education, even little support from individuals at risk who could use condoms but would like not to.

Unfortunately, from what I have experienced, the several groups supporting and promoting PrEP seemed to have given little thought to prevention education in presenting this intervention to stakeholders. .  They may be diligent in the context of efficacy trials, in ensuring the availability of condoms and counselling to participants.

But what seems to be missed is this:  Unless the promotion of PrEP is accompanied by very clear advocacy of prevention education with condom use,  PrEP can be seen as an alternative to safer sex practices as now recommended.

This cannot be the intention, but from comments I have heard after the CHAMP and CDC conferences this seems to be a dangerous conclusion that some have drawn.

The explanation of the utility of PrEP must be accompanied by a strengthening of prevention education to avoid this unfortunate misinterpretation. The very promotion of the concept of PrEP in the way it has so far been done can actually be seen as an undermining of condom use.  A possible alternative to condoms is presented. One can only hope that in the absence of accompanying prevention education there will not be instances sex with available antiretroviral drugs rather than with condoms.

Prevention education is in a dismal state as it is, and we should be aware of any activity that can undermine it further, unless care is taken in how it is presented.

I have commented in other posts that in HIV medicine a one-size-fits-all approach seems to be the norm.  Admittedly it’s cheaper to deal with populations rather than individuals. A single size that fits everybody is even cheaper  than providing  small, medium or large varieties, let alone customizing the size to fit individual needs.

So in HIV medicine, treatment recommendations have been made for all infected individuals, without considering the rate of disease progression, and many other characteristics applicable to any given person.

So it is with PrEP.  Its relevance is different to different constituencies.

At one extreme, for those who have no power to control the use of a condom by their male partner, PrEP may be the only realistic possibility of avoiding infection with HIV.  PrEP to these individuals is obviously of vital importance.

In fact it is so important that it would be useful even if its efficacy, if this can be demonstrated, proves to be inferior to the consistent use of condoms.   Such individuals have no alternative.

The situation of people who are perfectly capable of consistent condom use is different.

The power of the receptive partner in this case is the power to say no. No condom, no sex.   Both partners have an effective means of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV.  There is no need for PrEP to prevent infection, except that some may welcome an additional layer of protection.

There are others whose hopes for PrEP are different.  The desire to conceive is one.

Yet others hope that PrEP will make sex without condoms safe with respect to HIV transmission.   In this case the efficacy of PrEP would have to be known to be at least equal to the consistent use of condoms (and free from toxicity and affordable).   Of course  individuals decide to take risks that involve danger to  themselves only, but full information should be available, and certainly we should take care not to disseminate material that can  mislead, even if only by implication.   We do not have full information on the efficacy of PrEP, and I can see no way of testing its efficacy without the use of condoms.   But it is here that we need to take great care not to mislead, even by implication, that PrEP is as safe as using condoms unless in the unlikely event, it is actually  proven to be so.

Even a modest degree of efficacy is better than nothing for those who are unable to avoid sex with a partner who cannot be relied on to use a condom. There actually is nothing else to protect them.

A modest degree of efficacy is insufficient for those who are well able to refuse to have sex if a condom is not used.   That’s my opinion, and I would believe that of many others, but as  always risking  harm to oneself only,  is an individual choice;  our obligation is not to mislead, and ensure  that full and accurate information is available.

So, PrEP is of undoubted importance to individuals who have no control over the use of a condom by their male partner.  Apart from the female condom, it is the insertive partner who has to use a condom.  All the receptive partner has as protection now,  is the ability to just say no.  We recognize that there are situations when this is not possible, and no practical remedy is available to change this.

Of course there are other situations when it is possible to attempt a change.  If an individual just cannot say no to a partner who cannot be relied on to use a condom because he or she is ignorant of safer sex practices this is something we must try to remedy with intensive prevention education.  This will include imparting the knowledge of the lapses in judgement that can accompany the use of drugs or alcohol.

Getting away from the one-size-fits-all approach, there probably will be some individual situations in which PrEP, even if less effective than consistent condom use may be considered.  An example noted by one commentator is when condom use may be associated with sexual dysfunction.

Prevention education with consistent condom use is the best available means we have to prevent the transmission of HIV.   Prevention education should be strengthened and care taken not to undermine it.

Where individuals have no control over the use of a condom by their male partners  we should do what we can to provide them with the means to protect themselves, and PrEP may be all we have to work on at present.

Others may look to PrEP as a means to avoid the use of condoms.  The price of failure seems to be an extraordinary high one, considering that condom use is known to be highly effective in preventing HIV transmission.

There are people who need PrEP. There are also people perfectly able to use condoms but who want PrEP.

In promoting PrEP studies we must take great care not to undermine efforts at prevention education, even by implication.  Promotion of PrEP must go hand in hand with promotion of HIV prevention education.